Trade by telephone
Trade by telephone commerce is also known as M-Commerce and is a subdivision of e-commerce. This section will provide some of the critical features of this Commerce: e-commerce ensures the transaction of goods, services, or information from sellers to buyers via electronic media. The general definition of this trade does not have any restrictions on the device used to access it. The method used to gain internet access can be a cable line or not, a mobile phone, etc.
In telephony trading, the device is a telephone or any other machine that can be easily carried in hand. This is a new trend within the electronic economy and has started to be widely used by consumers. That is, the underlying technology of mobile telephony is used for internet marketing purposes. An academic definition of mobile Commerce is ‘any transaction involving the exchange of ownership or the right to use goods and services’ initiated and supplemented by the use of mobile access to computer networks.
The adjective ‘electronic’ used in the specific context of e-commerce or e-business refers to ‘unlimited access to time’ to business processes managed by computer networks. The adjective ‘mobile,’ used in the specific context of Commerce via mobile or mobile phone business, means unlimited access in time and independent of location, i.e., wherever you are. Access occurs due to cellular communication networks, making these services accessible regardless of the user’s geographical location. In Albania, e-commerce by telephone has experienced significant development in recent years.
Given the data of the Electronic and Postal Communications Authority (AKEP) for 2015 but published in a summary report during July 2016, Internet services via mobile phone have seen an increase from 2014 to 2015, with 38% is the most significant increase in recent years in terms of internet services. The number of subscribers mobile internet was 1,378,820 in 2014, going to 1,900,592 during 2015. The number of mobile telephony subscribers with 3G / 4G broadband Internet access increased by 30%, going from 1,571,163 users in 2014 to 2,049,072 users in 2015. Overall, the number of active users with broadband Internet access from mobile networks has increased by 43% from 2014 to 2015. The volume of data transmitted by mobile networks (measured in GB) is 103% folded. Accurate revenue figures generated by e-commerce in Albania are lacking, as there are also entities that operate informally. However, what makes us realize that there is a growing trend is data on internet users, as a significant indicator that reflects the spread of information technology.
We can define telephone commerce as any electronic Commerce where the buying and selling of goods and services occur via mobile phones or all other wireless devices and can be easily moved. This type of trading is more dynamic and has some features that make it more personalized, flexible, and pervasive. It has influenced many areas such as product marketing and advertising, making sales promotions easier.
Sellers can send text messages by doing promotions of their products or other promotional campaigns; has also affected the banking sector by allowing its customers to make banking transactions by telephone directly from their account; has influenced the field of bill payment, which is one of the most famous examples of mobile phone trading; communicating information such as receiving information on the current situation such as weather forecast, financial news, sports news, traffic situation, etc.
Smartphone type mobile phones are becoming more prevalent, and retailers are starting to use telegraph commerce as a more dynamic and effective method of use, which reaches their prospective customers faster. The most critical stakeholders in the telephone trade are customers, mobile operators, infrastructure companies, mobile and security applications, infrastructure companies, telephone applications, security companies, and banks and credit card companies. About stakeholders, Eisner (2008) has identified 11 key factors that have influenced the growth of the e-commerce sector by telephone. These are:
1) easy-to-use software;
2) Convenient hardware;
3) Fast in data communication;
4) contains GPS service;
5) numerous payment options provide security and are easy to use;
6) distribution and marketing of mobile phones;
7) Price and planning of telephones;
8) creating a trademark through mobile phones;
9) creating websites that fit phones;
10) consumer preference;
11) While other researchers evaluate other advantages of e-commerce via mobile phone. According to Tiwari & Buse, e-commerce is characterized by several features that make it unique and give it an edge over other forms of commercial transactions, including e-commerce itself through computers. The first characteristic has to do with:
1) Everywhere, the buyer, customer, or consumer can carry out financial or commercial transactions that do not depend on his geographical location. This feature is essential in many situations, for example, allowing price comparisons while it may be in a supermarket.
2) It is immediate: it is related to the above feature of ubiquity and is associated with providing services in real-time. This feature requires immediate action and requires a quick response, such as information about a stock buyer. On the other hand, the consumer can buy goods and services when he feels needed and needs them. The immediate transaction helps consumers buy their products or services at the very moment they have thought of such a goal, and thus sales do not lose time between the consumer’s intent and the actual purchase of the product, goods, or services.
3). Localization – such as location technologies The Global Positioning System (GPS) allows companies to offer goods and services to users in their specific location.
4). Instant connection: most cell phones today, thanks to an internet connection and other services and devices are most of the time online. This feature brings benefits for the user because there are no more time-wasting processes such as dialing a phone number, etc.
5). The fifth feature has to do with pro-active functionality: e-commerce via mobile phone, due to its capabilities, opens up new opportunities for marketing and product offering. By offering multiple marketing and promotion services, consumers can choose which products, services, or companies to follow and get information from them. The SMS service can send instant messages to customers, informing them, and sending offers that best suit their needs. This feature allows the ‘right’ information to be addressed at the ‘right’ time and in the ‘right’ place. On the other hand, the consumer is not afraid of losing any vital information or getting it late.
6). The sixth characteristic has to do with the fact of identifying the telephone user by registering SIM phone cards.